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Fundamental projects

7 F. 8 "Culture of the Stone Age of Uzbekistan" (2002-2006) Islamov U.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

New archaeological and anthropological materials have been obtained, revealing the ancient history of the peoples of Uzbekistan and Central Asia as a whole. Exploration of the Obirakhmat grotto gave a clear sequence of cultural horizons. The remains of a hominid found here are unique finds of this kind made on the territory of Uzbekistan, which shed light on the evolution of ancient humans from Neanderthal to Homo sapiens. Research of materials from the Obirahmat grotto continues to this day. An important result of the work of the Kyzylkum Neolithic detachment is the discovery of new Paleolithic and Neolithic monuments on the territory of the Akchadarya delta, where, in particular, the first Paleolithic workshop in this region was found.

 

7 F. 21 "The civilization of Turan in the era of antiquity and antiquity (II millennium BC - early I millennium AD)" (2002-2006) Matbabaev B.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

For the early periods of the Bronze Age, the main materials were obtained from the monuments of the south of Uzbekistan - Zharkutan, the Bustan group of monuments. Zharkutan is an example of the origin and development of the city and the first state formations with all the attributes of the early city culture. New archaeological materials were obtained at the Afrasiab settlement, which made it possible to make the age of the city of Samarkand more ancient. Archaeological research was carried out at the Sangirtepa settlement, where new materials were obtained on the study of the urban culture of the Kesh-Shakhrisabz oasis.

 

7 F. 26 “History and civilization of Uzbekistan based on archaeological materials of Maverannahr (V-XVI centuries)” (2002-2006) Anarbaev A.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

Archaeological work carried out at the Shashtepe settlement in 2003-2005. provided new materials that make it possible to reveal that those who lived in the VIII century. BC. ancient local tribes belonged to the "Burguluk culture". Analysis of archaeological materials and information from written sources makes it possible to localize the main capital of ancient Fergana of the 2nd-1st centuries. BC. the city of Ershi on the territory of the settlement of Akhsiket in the Kasansay oasis of Fergana. In the course of archaeological work at the Afrasiab settlement, monumental wall paintings of the Karakhanid time (XII century AD) were discovered.

 

7 F. 11 "Chemical and technological study of ancient craft industries and preservation of objects of cultural heritage of Uzbekistan" (2002-2006) Reutova M.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

In the field of studying the ancient metallurgy and metalworking of Northern Bactria, on the basis of chemical, spectral and other types of analyzes, typological and chemical-metallurgical changes, different orientations of bonds and changes in the nature of sources of raw materials are determined.

 

FA-F8-026 "Early stages of anthropogenic processes in Uzbekistan" (2007-2011) Islamov U.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

In the study of the Paleolithic sites of Kulbulak, Kuturbulak, Zirabulak, a clear technical and typological classification of technocomplexes was carried out based on de Lumley's methodology, type-lists of the industries under consideration were created, and significant technological and typological indices were determined. For the first time in the Paleolithic studies of Uzbekistan, the role of raw materials in the development of stone processing technology has been determined. Archaeological work carried out at the Neolithic site of Ayakagitma made it possible to reveal new materials that make the Kelteminar culture more ancient by 3 thousand years. The research results determined the role and place of the history of Uzbekistan in the process of formation and development of the most ancient cultures of mankind in the central part of Eurasia. Published 60 articles, including 19 foreign and 41 republican, prepared a monograph and defended three Ph.D. theses.

 

FA-F8-027 "Culture of farmers and pastoralists in the Central Asian interfluve: traditions and problems of innovation (II-I millennium BC)" (2007-2011) Matbabaev B.Kh.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

In Samarkand Sogd, at the Koktepe settlement near Chelek, for the first time, the most complete information about the internal structure of the ancient city was obtained, where parts of a Zoroastrian temple, a palace and a fortification system were uncovered. Based on the materials found in the monuments of Zharkutan and Sangirtepe, materials were obtained that made it possible to study the lifestyle, ideologies of the population and cultural ties between adjacent territories. The discovery in Sangirtepe is important, where the temple of the early antique time of Sogd is explored.

In studies of the early urban culture of the Fergana Valley, a peculiar way of development of the so-called. contact zone, different from the civilizations of the Ancient East. A stone weight dating back to the III-II millennium BC. indicates the presence of Bronze Age materials near the city of Karasu.

A new monument of the Bronze Age was discovered - Alibaytepe, which is located on the right bank of the Tupalangdarya (Surkhandarya region). Published 56 articles, including 15 foreign and 41 republican, 3 monographs and two Ph.D. theses.

 

FA-F8-028 "Urban culture of historical and cultural regions of Uzbekistan and their relationship" (2007-2011) Pidaev Sh.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

The processes of formation and development of urban culture in the southern regions of Uzbekistan have been studied in the light of the development of agriculture, crafts, culture.

Archaeological excavations carried out in the Buddhist center Karatepe in Old Termez showed that Termita-Termez was a major center of Buddhism in Central Asia during the Kushan era. The objects of artistic culture found here indicate the originality of the Buddhist culture of Bactria.

The chronological features in the dwellings of the townspeople in the Eski Termez shahristan have been studied. Revealed wall paintings in the Zartepe monument, displaying scenes from the Indian epic "Mahabaharata".

It has been established that the discovered two-storey monumental structure found in the Mingurik monument has a cult significance, which served as the basis for the emergence of the city. Published 46 articles, including 10 foreign and 36 republican.

 

FA-F8-018) "Formation and development of medieval urban culture of Uzbekistan" (2007-2011) Anarbaev A.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

Archaeological research has led to the conclusion that at the turn of the 1st century AD Margilan stands out as the center of the Margilansay oasis. The city consisted of three parts: a citadel, a shahristan and a suburb. That is, two thousand years ago the city of Margilan appears. All this made it possible to celebrate the 2000th anniversary of the city under the auspices of UNESCO. It was possible to restore the outlines of the early medieval and medieval urban center of Binket-Tashkent in the 9th-11th centuries. and the end of the XIII-XVI centuries. The results obtained made it possible to celebrate the 2,200th anniversary of the city of Tashkent under the auspices of UNESCO. Archaeological research in Western Sogd was focused on one of the largest urban centers of the Bukhara oasis, the settlement of Paikend. extensive excavations have affected the citadel, shahristan 2 and rabad of the ancient settlement. the remains of a cathedral mosque and a unique 9th century minaret have been uncovered on the citadel. excavations of barracks of the 3rd-4th centuries began. On Shakhristan 2, the South Gate, a street network and the remains of workshops of metalworkers, flatbread makers, tabibs were identified (93 articles were published, including 22 foreign, 71 republican).

 

FA-F8-025 "Characteristics of ancient industries based on the results of chemical and technological research and the preservation of cultural and historical values ​​of Uzbekistan" (2007-2011) Reutova M.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

Collected materials and literature data on metallurgy and metalworking in ancient Sogd (the era of early metal - the medieval period).

Based on the results of processing archaeological material, craft centers for the metalworking of copper and bronze were identified, the dynamics of the development of the alloy formulation technology was traced, the chemical composition of the metal was determined, the sources of raw materials were established on which the metallurgical and metal-working centers of Sogd were based.

Studied the compositions of glazes, selected recipes for the compositions, determined the physicochemical parameters of ancient building ceramics.

158 fragments of Islamic painting from Afrasiab, 46 fragments of sculpture from Karatepe were restored and assembled. Numerous objects made of clay, ceramics, metal, stone, and bone have been restored.

Works on preservation and certification of petroglyphs of Sarmishsay have been carried out.

36 articles published, incl. 8 foreign. One brochure in Russian and English.

 

F1-FA-0-76486 "Transition from the Middle to Upper Paleolithic and the problem of the formation of Homo sapiens in Central Asia" (2012-2016) Khuzhanazarov M.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

As a result of the research, a large collection of Middle, Late Paleolithic and Neolithic was obtained. It turned out that the finds from Sulton Uvays and Kukcha belong to a typical variant of the Late Paleolithic cultures and are typologically dated to the Late Paleolithic era. As for Ayakagetmu, the monuments are typologically dated to the early Paleolithic era. In addition, the role of raw material in the development of stone processing technology is revealed using the example of materials from the above-mentioned monuments. It turns out that the Paleolithic people in the Zaravshan valley lived in conditions of a shortage of high-quality raw materials. Therefore, in the stone processing technique, a strong economy of material is felt.

Thus, the territory of the Zaravshan and Kyzylkum valley was developed at the end of the Middle Paleolithic. The similarity of the composition of the industries of the Mousterian sites with the Late Paleolithic materials allows us to speak about the autochthonous development of the Paleolithic cultures of the region. Published 44 articles, including 14 foreign and 30 republican, 2 monographs.

 

F1-FA-0-19793 “Uzbekistonning қadimgi deҳқonchilik madaniyatlari va kўchmanchi chorvadorlar dunyosi: mil. abb. III - milodning I ming yilliklari boshlarida ўzaro alogalari va ta'sirlar muammosi "(2012-2016) Matbabaev B.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

The studies carried out indicate the presence of settlements with a powerful fortification and a citadel (Dalverzin, Chust). In the era of Yaz1 type monuments, as in Fergana, citadels stand out as the residence of the ruler and a refuge for the population of nearby settlements. These include Koktepe, Yerkurgan, Kiziltepe, Afrasiab. They contain only layers with Yaz 1 type materials.

In them, the presence of a number of signs (citadel, defensive wall) in many ways remains not fully resolved. In this respect, Dalverzin is the only single-layer and large monument dating back to the early Iron Age on the territory of Uzbekistan. We do not yet know of another large sedentary settlement in the Yaz 1 era. Apparently, the early materials of the Chust culture are older than the complexes Kizil 1, Kuchuk 1 (Bactria), Yaz 1 (Margiana), Koktepea (Sogd), Burguluk (Shash). All this suggests the presence on the territory of the widespread Chust culture of one of the early states of Uzbekistan. Published 49 articles, including 5 foreign and 43 republican, 2 monographs

 

F1-FA-0-83775 "Urbanization processes in the culture of antiquity and early Middle Ages in Sogd and Ustrushana" (2012-2016) Berdimuradov A.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

Analyzed the fundamental issues related to the urbanization processes of Sogd and Ustrushany, which resulted in new data on the following issues:

Fieldwork revealed the internal development of the citadels of Kafirkala, Varakhsha, Paykend, Penjikent and complexes of material culture. A comparative analysis of the citadels of Sogd in the early Middle Ages and the patterns in their planning was carried out. The stratigraphy and chronology of the erection of the Romitan Kurgan are revealed.

A study of a terracotta figurine of the goddess found in the settlement of Eski Khavos that in Ustrushan there was a widespread cult of idols bearing a masculine principle.

It was revealed that the settlement of Eski Havas was built on more ancient layers. Research carried out in the Jizzakh region showed the originality of the urbanization processes of Ustrushana and its connection in antiquity and the early Middle Ages with neighboring Fergana, Chach (Tashkent oasis) and Sogdiana. (published 79 articles, including 9 foreign and 67 republican, 3 monographs).

 

F1-FA-0-19751 "Historical topography of Central and North-Eastern Uzbekistan in the early and developed Middle Ages)" (2012-2016) Anarbaev A.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

During the research period, fundamental issues related to the localization and internal topography of cities and rural settlements in Sogd, Tashkent and Fergana were analyzed.

In particular, as a result of the intensive development of irrigation systems on virgin and settled lands of Central Fergana in the 7th century, environmental changes occur, which led to the desolation of some urban-type settlements, such as Kalamishtepe, Gurtepe, etc. It became known that the main reason was the rise in the level of groundwater and soil salinization;

In the 9th-12th centuries, the large capital cities of Sogd, Tashkent and Fergana expanded and their population increased. In particular, Samarkand and Akhsiket are expanding at the expense of the Rabads and turning into “megacities” of their time.

In the 9th-12th centuries, dozens of new cities appeared in the Tashkent oasis due to the development of the mining industry. The capital cities of Kharashket (Kanka) and Binket (Shahruhia) continue to develop. At this time, there were two rabad in Binket, each of which was reinforced with defensive walls;

The date of the construction of the Kampyr Devar oasis in the lower Zerafshan has been specified. In particular, it was revealed that the wall was built in the second half of the 4th - 5th centuries. It was also found that the caravanserais of the early 12th-13th centuries were similar to modern hotels and consisted of one-, two- and three-room sections. Published 76 articles, including 18 foreign and 58 republican, 2 monographs.

 

F1-FA-0-91419 "Study of the dynamics of the addition and development of ancient cultures on the basis of natural scientific methods, development of methods of conservation and restoration of historical monuments of Uzbekistan" (2012-2016) Reutova M.

The main scientific and technical results obtained under the project.

The chemical composition of pigments of Afrasiab painting of the XII century has been studied. Research has been carried out on the topic: "Metallurgy of cultures in the Northern zone of Uzbekistan and adjacent regions in the Eneolithic Bronze Age". The materials of ancient agricultural and steppe cultures, cultures of molded painted ceramics have been studied. Considered: chemical and metallurgical characteristics of the metal, types of alloys, chemical groups; ore base, sources of metal; classification, cartography and relationships of metal products; chronology of metallurgical and chemical groups, ore sources of metal and complexes; overview of the centers of metallurgy.

58 fragments of painting of the 12th century have been restored. (Afrasiab), 9 - from Fayaztepe and Zartepe, 12 paintings (Varakhsha, Uchkulakh), 12 fragments of sculpture (Karatepу), 28 fragments of carved clay and gakyil (Paykent). Refined 296 silver and copper coins

The western and northern walls of Afrasiab's murals (hall of ambassadors) were re-assembled on a new foundation. South wall - under review Published: 26 articles, incl. 2 foreign, 1 monograph.

 

FZ-2016-0907160431 "Material and Spiritual Culture of Sogd in the Era of Antiquity and the Middle Ages" (2017-2020) Berdimuradov A.

The project envisages introducing into scientific circulation new research materials on the material culture of Sogd, reflecting everyday life and handicraft products, highlighting local variants, and new materials on the spiritual culture of Sogd, reflecting religious ideas, rituals, religious and burial structures and objects of worship. All this will make it possible to characterize not only the level of development of material culture, but also issues of military affairs, social structure and social relations of the Sogdians, as well as allow to reconstruct and clarify the role of ancient cults associated with traditional management in the everyday life of the urban and rural population and various phenomena of spiritual worldview of the population of Sogd.

 

FZ-2016-0908205702 "Ancient cities of the Syrdarya basin and their role on the Great Silk Road" (2017-2020) Anarbaev A.

Within the framework of the project, a map of the historical and geographical location of ancient cities in the Syr Darya basin (IV century BC - early XIII century AD) will be compiled, their chronology will be clarified and the dynamic development of urbanization processes in the period of antiquity and the Middle Ages will be shown. It will analyze and draw conclusions on the settlement of nomadic and semi-nomadic peoples, the problems of the emergence and specific features of new cities. Scientific conclusions will be made on the basis of new archaeological materials found on the territory of Uzbekistan, ancient Silla (Korea) and China, as well as the role of the ancient cities of the Syr Darya basin in the political and socio-economic life of regional states, as well as on the Great Silk Road, will be analyzed. Also, the history of migration of peoples during the Arab invasion will be studied. A scientific explanation of the role of the Sogdian-Turkic aristocrats in the history of the states of China and Silla is given.

 

Ф3-2016-0908215914 "Systemic study of monuments of the Stone Age, early metals and antiquity of the Central Asian interfluve and preservation of objects of the historical heritage of the peoples of Uzbekistan" (2017-2020) Matbabaev B.

New monuments of the Stone Age of Uzbekistan are being studied and introduced into scientific circulation, and their distribution map is being created. The cultural and chronological belonging of these monuments is determined.

Preparation of historical conclusions based on the study of the features of the general characteristics of the finds obtained from the monuments of the Bronze Age, Early Iron Age and Antiquity. These conclusions made it possible to reveal the features of the origin of sedentary and nomadic communities, the study of their migrations, as well as the emergence of cities, early forms of statehood.

When restoring and restoring finds obtained during excavations, it allows not only to preserve unique works, but also to study the technology of creating such masterpieces.


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