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Projects under the foundation for basic research support

"Monumental sculpture of Kara-tepa (Historical and art history analysis and restoration" (code 181-06) (2006-2007).

The conducted historical and art history analysis showed that there was a school of sculpture on the territory of Northern Bactria. Ancient masters, using their own accumulated experience, local traditions and taking into account the developed canons of Buddhist monumental art, created magnificent examples of Buddhist art.

 

"Development of methods for the preservation of a unique object of monumental painting (Afrasiab XII)" (code 182-06) (2006-2007).

Developed methods for the conservation and restoration of fragments of monumental paintings of the Islamic period, discovered on the site of Afrasiab. The chemical analysis of the materials used in the painting was carried out and the technique of wall painting was studied. The restoration of numerous unique fragments of polychrome paintings was carried out, as a result of which it became possible to reconstruct the painting on the walls of the pavilion, which it decorated in ancient times.

 

"The craft of ancient Ferghana (II-I thousand BC)" (code 183-06) (2006-2007).

Based on the archaeological material obtained from the monuments of the Ferghana Valley of the Chust period (Chust, Dalverzin, Ashkaltepa, Osh settlement, etc.), the handicraft activity of the population of this historical and cultural region is studied. During the re-processing of the huge material obtained in 1970-1980, it turned out that in the II-I millennium BC in the Ferghana Valley, there was a division of the handicraft activity of the population. There were separate areas of handicraft production, such as pottery, stone, bone, metal, wood, jewelry, etc.

 

"Ancient cultural centers of the Middle Chirchik valley of the Tashkent region" (code 184-06) (2006-2007).

According to the project, the remains of the Shakhdzhuvartepe settlement, located on the left bank of the Pskem River in the Tashkent region, were examined. The settlement has an area of more than 10 hectares, the citadel is about 2.5 hectares. During the excavations, it turned out that the lower layers of the settlement belong to the early Medieval period. The greatest development of the city belongs to the Samanid and Karakhanid periods. In this period, a handicraft area appeared around the city, where copper ore was processed. Archaeological research made it possible to trace the development of the city in the mountainous part of the Tashkent oasis.

 

"Buddhist painting of monuments of the southern Uzbekistan of the Kushan era" (FA-122) (2008-2009).

In the process of field conservation and restoration of fragments of paintings, original subjects were identified, the technique of painting execution was traced, and the chemical analysis of painting pigments was carried out. As studies have shown, many of the principles and canons laid down at this time in the pictorial art of Kushan Bactria were used by artists in the subsequent time, in the era of the developed Middle Ages. The finds of paintings on Zartepe and Karatepe testify to the uniqueness of the culture of Kushan Bactria and indicate the closest cultural contacts of Bactria with India, which was due to the entry of these regions into the unified Kushan Empire.

 

"Housing and construction culture of Uzbekistan in the era of the Samanids and Karakhanids and related religious beliefs" (FA-123) (2008-2009).

As a result of research, it turned out that there are noticeable changes in the housing and construction culture of the Samanid and Karakhanid eras, in particular, burnt bricks were widely used. There are changes in the layout of the dwelling: there are courtyards (open and semi-open), separate small rooms where sanitary and hygienic facilities were located (badrabs, tashnau). At the same time, the storerooms (barn) rooms were located in secluded places. Most of the dwellings have an enfilade layout.

 

FA-010-FP-73 " Migration to the south of cattle-breeding tribes of Central Asia and ethnogenetic processes of ancient Turan».

In the course of field research in 1970-1980 in Sapallitepe and Jarkutan, a huge amount of archaeological material was obtained, some of which were in the raw form in the museums of Surkhandarya, Samarkand and in the funds of the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. At the moment, this project considers these materials according to new research methods and modern requirements of the humanities.

 

FA-010-FP-74 " Culture and Art of Bactria of the Great Kushan era. (According to the materials of Payankurgan)»

According to the plan of scientific subjects support Fund analysis was made of the terracotta sculptures of the monument Payanakurgan. Iconographic study of the terracotta sculpture showed that the physical type of the characters is represented by three types: Caucasian, Mongoloid and mixed. The data obtained indicate that the population of Northern Bactria in the era of the Great Kushans (I-II centuries AD) was mixed. Reliable dating of the pictorial complex obtained on Payankurgan is provided by coin finds, in particular, coins of Soter Megas, Vima Kadfiz and Kanishka, which chronologically fit into the specified chronological framework.

 

FA-010-FP-75 " Historical topography of Samarkand and Akhsiket of the Karakhanid period».

It is known that under the Samanids, Samarkand lost its role as the official capital, which was transferred to Bukhara. Under the Samanids and Karakhanids, the city remained the largest trade and craft center of Transoxiana. Such a role and fate belong to Ahsiket, the largest urban center of the Ferghana Valley. Archaeological research conducted in recent years on Afrasiab and Akhsiket provide an opportunity to compare many questions on the historical topography of these cities, these works are considered for this project.

 

FA-010-FP-76 " Migrations of tribes in Uzbekistan during the Eneolithic and Bronze Age».

The chemical characteristics of metal products of the Eneolithic and Bronze Age cultures of Uzbekistan and neighboring territories are described. The genetic relationship of the metal with the original ore sources and mining areas is shown. The types of metal equipment that were common to different categories of monuments are considered. According to this indicator, the relations and exchange between the tribes of the cultures of Uzbekistan and other Central Asian republics of the studied period are determined.

 

FA-010-FP-77 " Eneolite in Uzbekistan (based on the materials of the workshops of Kukayaz)".

In the course of field research in the site of the dried-up valley of Kukayaz in central Kyzylkum, a huge material was obtained – stone tools dating back to the Eneolithic era. According to the plan of scientific topics of the Fund's support has been described typological characteristics of stone products Kok-ata. Technology and typology of stone tools of Kok-ata do not yet have Parallels with the materials of Central Asia. The results of the research provide an opportunity to identify a kind of" Kok-ayaz culture".

 

IG. 6-14 " Historical and source study of Central Asian copper coins of the VIII-X centuries. as a historical source».

On the basis of a comprehensive analysis compiled a complete database about the repertoire of the copper coins of the tenth century – considered all variable features, fixed the chronological limits of these options, the scheme of fixing these options and the ability to use this scheme for the Dating of written sources (considered forms of writing, the stylistics, spelling and paleography). Historical criticism in the analysis of coin texts is extremely necessary, because sometimes there are also facts of unreliability of the information contained in the inscriptions of the studied fels, various anachronisms that make it difficult to reliably evaluate the information. A review of the copper coinage of Central Asia in the eighth and tenth centuries allowed us to more clearly outline the contours of various political events in the history of the region. Thus, numismatic data in comparison with the information from handwritten sources allowed us to specify the nature of the administrative structure in Transoxiana at first after its inclusion in the Caliphate - the role of rulers was performed by representatives of the Arab military administration. Numismatic data also allowed us to observe the process of concentration of power at the beginning of the IX century. The studied materials are also extremely important for covering some issues of social history. Numismatic data allowed us to consider more broadly the question of the institution of service awards in the tenth century and to trace its development. In the tenth century, the process of transferring certain regions and cities to conditional ownership significantly expanded. In favor of this, 50 identified new facts of this kind speak. Among them - for the first time analyzed on the basis of new numismatic data, the facts of the grant (or part of them) to the capital of the Samanid state – Bukhara.


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