Uzbekistan, located in the very heart of Central Asia, due to its historical and geographical conditions, since ancient times, for several millennia, has been a crossroads of cultural contacts and movement of peoples. First of all, this determined the place not only for the mixing of the economy, the way of life of numerous sedentary agricultural and nomadic ethnic groups, but also for their settling and assimilation. This process continued until the late Middle Ages and, approaching the era of modern civilization, became more and more intensified. These processes were long-term, step-by-step, and were widely reflected in the objects of material culture - construction, ceramics, clothing, weapons and tools, burial rites; anthropological type of population; the traditional culture and language of our people.
Reconstruction of an objective historical picture of the genesis of the people is today a paramount task that contributes to the revival, strengthening of national unity and the sovereign state of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Its history reflects the fate of its people, and knowledge of history forms national identity, patriotism and civic consciousness, without which a great state cannot be built.
The main directions of archeology in the development of modern social science
History and archeology is the policy of the state, turned to the past, which increases the importance of these sciences in the public consciousness. In the independent Republic, historical sciences, incl. archeology, for the first time got the opportunity to create an objective picture of the development of society. Today such concepts as "science", "state", "history", "civilization", "heritage" sound in a new way, they have acquired a new meaning and turned into a single, interconnected whole. The long historical process reflects the fate of the people and the task of historians and archaeologists - to recreate the history of the nation based on factual materials, to eradicate injustice and excesses committed within the framework of the totalitarian regime of Soviet power.
The history of the Uzbek people, starting from the most ancient period, from the Paleolithic era, and up to the present day, has always proceeded on this territory, in close mutual contact with the states of the Ancient East from the south and the Eurasian expanses from the north, being part of the world civilization.
Today, research in archeology is carried out on the following fundamental theoretical and methodological principles:
Complexity. With an integrated approach, all the variety of factors influencing the development of certain phenomena in the historical process is taken into account, the sum of sources is studied to clarify the historical picture. The attraction of data from archaeological research alone cannot help in reconstructing an objective picture of historical events, and therefore it is important to attract the entire amount of information: historical chronicles, numismatic data, epigraphy, etc. An integrated approach also implies interdisciplinarity, when solving the problems of historical reconstructions involved in other humanitarian and technical disciplines.
Historicism, as a method, acts as a way of studying phenomena in their origin and development, in their connection with specific natural, geographical and landscape conditions. At the same time, this method embodies the requirement of cognition of the quantitative and qualitative uniqueness of phenomena, the identification of both their general and special features. Historicism is aimed at a deep study of sources, the entire set of facts, establishing links between them and organizing the knowledge gained into a system. With this approach, the rejection of the formational division of history and the appeal to a civilizational approach, inextricably linked with the history of the country and specific problems, acquires particular importance. In archaeological research, systemic, comparative historical and historical retrospective methods are widely used and will be useful, which make it possible to widely use factual materials, as well as analyze various phenomena and trends in the historical process.
These theoretical foundations also form the methodological principles of activity:
- the objectivity of the assessment of the entire amount of sources;
- in the context of world history, the study of the spiritual and material culture of Uzbekistan;
- practical analysis of methods of historical research used in world practice and assessment of the possibility of their implementation.
Goals and objectives of the Concept
The goal of domestic archaeological science is to recreate an objective historical picture reflecting the development of civilization and statehood of the Uzbek people from ancient times to the era of the Temurids. Without separating it from world history and not opposing it, reflect the contribution of the Uzbek people to the treasury of world civilization as a relay of advanced ideas and innovations from East to West and from West to East along the routes of the Great Silk Road; highlight the role of the Uzbek people and their contribution to the formation of cultures and statehood of the peoples of Central Asia. Concentration of efforts on priority areas of fundamental, applied and innovative research, conducting research and obtaining scientific results in the field of archeology, ancient and medieval history, ethnogenesis of the peoples of Uzbekistan, which are important in the development of social sciences in the country, training a new generation of scientists and highly qualified specialists.
Objectives to achieve the goal:
The development of the theoretical and methodological foundations of archeology, the materialistic approach, the evolutionary development of society, the rejection of the rigid formational division of history and the transition to a civilizational approach inextricably linked with the history of the country and nation. In the historical applied meaning, the development of problems of chronology, periodization and classification:
-. the introduction of information technologies in the methodology of archaeological research and the improvement and unification, in accordance with the practice of world archeology, research methods - statistical, systemic, morphological, functional and taxonomic concepts;
-. studying the problems of the development of Central Asia by primitive man, the formation of a productive economy and irrigation agriculture, the origin of man, society, the problem of genesis - the formation and development of tribes and peoples, the relationship of settled agricultural cultures with the culture of nomads;
-. studying the problems of the origin of civilization, the most ancient oasis states, early cities and statehood, the worldview of ancient societies, irrigation, crafts, metallurgy and mining, the origin and formation of world religions.
¬ Study of the history of the material and spiritual culture of Uzbekistan from antiquity to the developed Middle Ages. Studies of the history of trade, economic and cultural interaction of the peoples of Central Asia;
- development of methods for restoration, conservation and archaeological supervision of monuments;
- identification, registration - certification and mapping of archeological monuments, creation of a collection of monuments and generalization of the archaeological heritage of Uzbekistan.
Priority scientific directions of Uzbek archeology
- FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STONE AGE CULTURES OF UZBEKISTAN
- FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATIONS AND STATEHOOD IN THE TERRITORY OF UZBEKISTAN
- STUDYING, PRESERVATION AND MUSEIFICATION OF MONUMENTS ON THE GREAT SILK ROAD
- HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OF UZBEKISTAN
A. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STONE AGE CULTURES OF UZBEKISTAN
The history of the Stone Age in the vast territories of Central Asia and, in particular, Uzbekistan remains to this day one of the least studied problems of domestic archeology of the preliterate period. The current situation is explained, on the one hand, by the small number of known stratified monuments in the region, and, on the other hand, by the lack of natural science data even on the most studied objects. In addition, the issues of the formation of an early modern man (homo sapiens sapiens) on the territory of Uzbekistan, his interaction with nature, remain insufficiently developed.
- The origin, features, evolution of the cultures of the early Stone Age hominids of Uzbekistan
- Paleoecology and paleoeconomics of primitive cultures of Uzbekistan
B. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION AND STATEHOOD IN THE TERRITORY OF UZBEKISTAN
The ancient agricultural culture of Uzbekistan has a deep historical base, which is based on the proto-urban civilizations of the Middle East. At the same time, the pastoral tribes of the Bronze and Early Iron periods of Central Asia also played a fundamental role in the formation of its socio-economic, ethnic and cultural development. These traditions of interchange, symbiosis of ethnic groups and cultures continued in subsequent eras, having played a huge role in the process of the formation of urbanized centers with a developed craft, separated from other types of labor activity, and a high spiritual culture of the urban population.
Archaeological research shows that the urbanization processes of the ancient culture of Sogd and Ustrushana are associated with the results of Alexander the Great's conquest of Central Asia, the beginning of Hellenism and its synthesis with the local local, original culture. In the era of antiquity and the Middle Ages, the cultural genesis of Central Asia receives a new impetus, dozens of new cities and hundreds of settlements appear on the territory of Sogd, Bactria, Khorezm, Fergana and Ustrushana. Ancient cities acquire a new look, a new fortification system is being formed, monetary circulation is spreading everywhere, and artistic traditions continue to develop.
On the above listed problems, the following scientific topics are proposed for development:
- The emergence and stages of development of irrigated agriculture in Uzbekistan (according to archaeological and materials);
- Formation and development of urban culture of Uzbekistan in antiquity and the Middle Ages;
- The statehood of Uzbekistan in antiquity and the Middle Ages (based on archaeological materials);
- Historical topography of Sogd, Fergana, Usrushana and Bactria in antiquity and the Middle Ages (according to archaeological and written sources);
- Study, restoration and concert of unique and original finds of wall painting, sculpture, carved piece, metal, ceramics and glass from ancient and medieval monuments of Uzbekistan;
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OF UZBEKISTAN
The land of Uzbekistan is very rich in archaeological monuments, which has preserved treasures of the cultural heritage of various eras in its depths. More than 8500 archaeological monuments have been preserved on its territory, which are an invaluable asset of the common human civilization. Each settlement, fortress, parking lot, rock painting left by ancestors is a valuable artifact of our history that is waiting to be deciphered.
In this regard, one of the primary tasks is monitoring the preservation of archaeological monuments, for which it is necessary to significantly change and supplement the current Law on the Protection and Use of Historical and Cultural Monuments, adopted back in 2001, which would take into account all the realities of today.
Further conservation and preservation of movable and immovable archaeological sites is of no less importance. For a long time, archaeological artifacts were in the cultural layer, they were exposed to the natural influence of the environment, i.e. destruction and corrosion from salts, precipitation. When pulled out of the ground, they begin to deteriorate. To preserve the most unique artifacts discovered during the excavation of the ancient monuments of the republic, it is necessary to carry out urgent conservation and restoration work.
The following topics are suggested for the above problems:
- Systematization of archaeological monuments of Uzbekistan and the dynamics of development and anthropogenic development of the territory of the republic;
- Material and spiritual culture of ancient and medieval Uzbekistan;
- Study of ancient handicraft industries according to the data of physical and chemical analyzes and the preservation of the archaeological heritage of Uzbekistan;
- Evolution of Stone Age flint workshops in Central Asia.