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The international cooperation

With the Republic's independence, a special place in its activities is occupied by broad international contacts and joint projects and expeditions carried out on the basis of them.

Currently, scientists of the Institute conduct archaeological research with specialists from France (Paris, Nanterre), Italy (Bologna, Napoli), Russia (Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg), Japan (Nara), the United States, and China on the following joint projects:

 

"The civilization of Central Asia in Antiquity and the Middle Ages" - jointly with the National Center for Scientific Research of France (CNRS). The work was started in 1989, and the expedition's activities are focused on two sites - the Afrasiab settlement (the regional capital of the Samarkand Sogd) and the Koktepa settlement (one of the oldest urban centers, the supposed Bassil of ancient sources). Project managers - M. A. Reutova, F. Grenet, K. Rapen.

As a result of joint work on Afrasiab, a fairly clear stratigraphy was obtained, and layers of ancient Sogdiana time were identified. The obtained materials played a decisive role in the 2750-year-old age of Samarkand. One of the unique finds made by the expedition to the ancient settlement of Afrasiab is the paintings of the Karakhanid period, discovered in the pavilion of the palace complex. Wall paintings of the Early Middle Ages (V-VIII centuries) are much better known than paintings of the Islamic period, the finds of which are rare in Central Asia.

As a result of work on the mound Koktepe it was revealed that the city built by the ancient Sogdians in the VIII-VII centuries BC, which consisted of two parts: the ruler's Palace and sacristan, in the North-Western part of the city there was a temple of fire-worshipers. The city was surrounded by two rings of walls and existed until the third century BC.

In recent years, the work of the joint Uzbek-French archaeological expedition has focused mainly on processing the accumulated material, preparing it for museumification and publishing it.

 

"Urban Planning and Fortification of Ancient Bactria" - jointly with the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). The work of the expedition has been carried out since 1991 and is concentrated on the territory of the ancient settlement of Old Termez (Surkhandarya region), which appeared in the middle of the first millennium BC. Project leaders - T. Annaev, P. Lerish.

Archaeological research on the ancient settlement of Old Termez, conducted by a joint Uzbek-French expedition, showed that the oldest core of the settlement was located in the eastern half of the citadel, around which the city appeared in the middle of the first millennium BC. In the Greco-Bactrian period (III-II centuries BC), Termez had already developed as a major urban center, occupying the entire territory of the citadel and the area adjacent to it from the northwest, including, possibly, the territory of Chingiztepe. At that time, Termez was the main outpost of the Greco-Bactrian state on its northern borders.

In recent years, the work of the joint Uzbek-French archaeological expedition has focused mainly on processing the accumulated material, preparing it for museumification and publishing it.

 

"Stone Age Archaeology of the Central, southern and north-western parts of Uzbekistan" - jointly with the National Center for Scientific Research of France (CNRS). The work was started in 2008, and the activities of the international expedition are focused on the Ayakagitma site, located in the north-eastern part of Kyzylkum (Bukhara region). Project managers - M. Khuzhanazarov, F. Brunet.

The studies identified for the first time on the territory of the Kyzyl-Kum domestication of the bulls tours, camels and goats, geomorphological situation 7-5 Millennium. B. C. has Identified certain plant species to the historical time of the Neolithic period. We first studied the trace evidence of stone tools of the Neolithic period. An ancient topographic map of the monument has been compiled. The main stages of the cultural development and economy of the Neolithic tribes in the Akchadarya Delta are identified, the circle of cultural ties is outlined, and the ecological situation in which the Neolithic population lived is recreated in basic terms.

 

"Urban development and funerary rites in the prehistoric era" - in collaboration with the National Center for Scientific Research of France (CNRS). The works were started in 2008 and are concentrated in Jarkutan - a major monument of the Bronze and Early Iron Age in the south of Uzbekistan. Project managers - S. Mustafakulov, H. Bendezu.

The main purpose of the research is to study the stratigraphy of cultural layers on the fortress of the ancient settlement of Jarkutan and the burial ground of Jarkutan 3, in order to obtain anthropological materials and study them using new anthropological methods.

The main results of the field work are:

- For the first time on the Jarkutan monument, residential semi-dugouts with a frame structure and hearths were identified.

- For the first time in the entire territory of Bactria, ceramic furnaces of the Final Bronze Age were found.

- For the first time, some types of burial rites of the Early Iron Age of ancient Bactria were recorded on Jarkutan-3.

- For the first time in Bactria, a unique ring-shaped object made of iron, an anthropomorphic plot impression on ceramics, a bronze antimadon with sculptures and images of a ram were found.

In recent years, the work of the joint Uzbek-French archaeological expedition has focused mainly on processing the accumulated material and preparing the publication of a joint monograph.

 

"Material culture and urbanisation of cities and the development of an oasis in Bukhara in antiquity and the Middle Ages" - jointly with the National Center for Scientific Research of France (CNRS). The work was started in 2010, and the activities of the international expedition are focused on the largest urban centers of the Bukhara oasis, the settlements of Paykend and Romitan. Project managers - D. K. Mirzaakhmedov, Rante Rocco.

As a result of archaeological research, interesting materials on architecture, material culture and the nature of life in the city quarter of Shahristan I Paykend were obtained. The earliest types of monumental mud architecture are evidenced by the original rabad-caravanserai discovered in the suburbs of the settlement, which are the most striking indicators of the heyday of the Great Silk Road and the "city of merchants" - Paykend, located on its route.

 

"Comprehensive study of the archaeological sites of the Zarafshan Valley" - jointly with the University of Bologna (Italy). The work was started in 2000, the main focus of the research is to identify the earliest agro-irrigation zones, historical topography and dynamics of urban processes in the Samarkand Sogd. Project managers - A. E. Berdimuradov, M. Tozi.

The results of the expedition in the Zaravshan valley revealed about 1000 archaeological sites, of which 540 were studied.

The materials of the expedition were used in writing the " Catalog of archaeological monuments of Uzbekistan. Volume 1. Samarkand region. Part 1. The city of Samarkand and its districts", " Volume 1. The Samarkand region. Part 2. Nurabad district"

 

"Studies of the archaeological sites of the agricultural and pastoral contact zone of Central Sogd" - jointly with the University of Napoli (Italy). The work was started in 2013, and the main research area is the study of archaeological sites in the contact zone of agricultural culture and the culture of the steppe zone, mainly the cattle-breeding zone of Central Sogd. As well as, carrying out archaeological excavations in the ancient city of Toytepa located in the village Chandır Pastdargam district of Samarkand region. The project managers are M. Pardaev and Genito Bruno.

The results of the archaeological work carried out can already be traced to the historical picture of the Pri Dargom region in the ancient era as the border of contact zones between the agricultural and pastoral culture of Central Sogd. The settlement of Koytepe was a strongly fortified guard post that protected the agricultural population from the raids of nomads in antiquity.

 

"Problems of the Middle Paleolithic in Siberia, Mongolia and Central Asia" - jointly with the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk). Work was started in 1998 to study the Obi-Rakhmat grotto and the Kulbulak site, located in the Tashkent region. Project managers - S. R. Baratov, A. P. Derevyanko.

 

"Urban culture of Bukhara Sogd in the era of antiquity and the Middle Ages" - together with the State Hermitage Museum (St. Petersburg). The joint work was started in 1981. The activity of the expedition is concentrated on one of the largest urban centers of the Bukhara oasis - Paykend, well known from written sources as the "city of merchants" and "copper city". Project managers - D. K. Mirzaakhmedov, A.V. Omelchenko.

In the course of many years of research, a significant part of the Citadel, Shahristan and Rabad of the Paykend settlement was uncovered. The system of fortification, city blocks, rabats – caravanserais are revealed. Paykend has turned into a unique reference monument of archeology, a Museum has been built at the settlement, where finds are exhibited, visited by local and foreign guests.

 

"History and stages of Development of Central Asian Culture" - jointly with Kyoto University (Japan) and Tezukayama University. The work was started in 2006, and the research is focused on one of the most important urban centers of the Samarkand Sogd - Kalai Dabusiya and Kafirkala. Project managers - A. E. Berdimuradov, Uno Takao.

As a result of archaeological research on the site Dabusya in Pachtachi district of Samarkand region obtained important data on material culture and the stages of development of the ancient city. Thus, on the basis of excavations in Ark, Shahristan and Rabad, and a comparative analysis of written sources, it was revealed that the city was a major cultural and economic center of Sogd in the era of antiquity and the Middle Ages, where weaving was most widely developed among handicrafts and trade items.


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