Stone Age Culture of Uzbekistan
New archaeological and paleoanthropological materials have been obtained that reveal the ancient history of the peoples of Uzbekistan and Central Asia as a whole.
With the discovery and study of Fergantrop the history of settlement in Central Asia was dated back to 1.5 million years. The discovery of the Obirakhmat man leads Uzbekistan to the only known territory in the world of the formation of early modern humans (Homo sapienes sapienes). Unique studies of the Obirahmat grotto revealed a clear sequence of culture-bearing horizons. The hominid remains found here are unique for such finds on the territory of Uzbekistan, shedding light on the evolution of ancient man from Neanderthal to Homo sapiens.
In the study of Paleolithic sites in Kulbulak, Kuturbulak, Zirabulak clearly techno-typological classification of technocomplexes on the basis of modern techniques created by type-lists the considered industries and identified significant technological and typological indices. A number of new types of stone products have been identified. For the first time in the paleolithic studies of Uzbekistan, the role of raw materials in the development of stone processing techniques is determined. New Late Paleolithic monuments have been discovered and explored in the Ferghana Valley, Kyzylkum and Zarafshan valley, eliminating the "white spots" in the ancient history of these territories. An important result of the work of the Kyzylkum Neolithic group is the discovery of new Paleolithic and Neolithic monuments. The archaeological work carried out at the Neolithic site of Ayakagitma presented materials on the domestication of wild animals in the Kelteminarian culture. The latter suggests that the Neolithic tribes of the Kyzylkum were not only hunters and fishermen, but also skilled pastoralists. There are also data that extend the age of the Kelteminar culture by 3 thousand years.
The era of early metal and antiquity (III thousand BC - I thousand AD)
The processes of formation and development of the Turanian civilization in the Eneolithic - Early Iron Age, in the light of the development of agriculture, crafts, culture, as well as the appearance of early cities and the first state formations, are studied.
For the early periods of the Bronze Age, the main materials were obtained from the monuments of the south of Uzbekistan-Jarkutan, Bustan group of monuments. Jarkutan is an example of the origin and development of proto-cities and the first state formations with all the attributes of early urban culture.
For the first time, the most complete information about the internal structure of the ancient city, where parts of the Zoroastrian temple, the palace and the fortification system were uncovered, was obtained in the Koktepe settlement near Chelek, Samarkand. New archaeological materials have been obtained at the Afrasiab settlement, which allowed us to increase the age of Samarkand to 2750 years.
In Southern Sughd, according to new archaeological materials, the age of the cities of Karshi and Shakhrisabz is set at 2700 years.
Archaeological excavations continued at the Karatepe Buddhist center in Old Termez (2500 years old). Termita-Termez was a major center of Central Asian Buddhism during the Kushan era. The objects of artistic culture found here indicate the identity of the Buddhist culture of Bactria.
New data on the history of weaving in Uzbekistan have been obtained. Samples of silk from the Ferghana Valley indicate the development of its production here since the beginning of our era, and its formation as a center of silk weaving can relate to the III-IV centuries.
On the hillfort of Mingtepe (Andijan fork.) The early layers belonging to the epoch of the Early Iron Age of Central Asia are revealed. The remains of the defensive wall of the outer city, covering 150-160 hectares, are revealed. squares. Towers with rectangular loopholes were opened. The two-stage construction of the towers, at least the corner towers of the inner settlement, was confirmed. Fragments of red-angled ceramics with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic ornaments were also discovered for the first time. Thus, the data obtained allow us to speak about the metropolitan status of the Mingtepe settlement (Ershi according to Chinese sources).
Historical topography of Central and North-Eastern Uzbekistan in the V-beginning of the XIII centuries.
Large-scale archaeological research in Uzbekistan has led to the study of a number of ancient and medieval cities and settlements. A comprehensive survey was conducted of the functions of cities, their morphology, and their connection with both the surrounding countryside and the nomadic steppe. As a result, it was possible to trace the formation and development of urban culture in all regions of Uzbekistan from the V - to the beginning of the XIII century. Significant additions have been made to the historical topography and periodization of the development of the medieval cities of Chacha (Tashkent), Ferghana, Ustrushana, Sogda and Tokharistan. The features of the urban planning decisions of the ancient architects of Uzbekistan and the continuity of the development of the structure of the ancient and medieval city are determined. This allowed us to obtain completely new additional data on the inner life of the medieval city, the organization of crafts and trade, social relations, and thus to reveal the level of their economic development in individual regions.
During the archaeological excavations at Kafirkala, numerous bulls were discovered - the most valuable historical source for the study of the political history, administrative management, legal practice and external relations of the early medieval Sogd. Bullae are clay impressions of a cylindrical or rounded shape with imprints of seals applied to them. They, like modern sealing wax or seal, were the guarantor of safety, sealing or legally certifying the authenticity of a document (contract, letter, report). Most interesting is the bull with the image of the Buddha (Amitabha or more precisely his incarnation Avalokiteshvara) sitting on a throne, which is supported by figures of peacocks and an inscription on the sides of the deity. Unique is the bull with the image of a two-faced god under the arch, like the Roman god Janus. A number of images on the bulls clearly go back to Hellenistic traditions. Some of the stories contain mythological heroes’ episodes.
It was possible to trace the territorial movements of peoples and settlements at different stages of history, based on the requirements of economic growth and cultural development, and the nature of the irrigation network. At the same time, the reasons for the disappearance of flowering oases with urban centers of Central Ferghana and individual cities of Tashkent (Harashket) and Bukhara (Paykend) have been clarified.
Excavations have been completed on the territory of the current city of Margilan, where a previously unknown urbanized center with an area of more than 20 hectares has been identified. The results obtained made it possible to celebrate the 2000th anniversary of Margilan under the auspices of UNESCO.
The analysis of archaeological materials and information from written sources makes it possible to localize the main capital of ancient Ferghana "Fargana" ("Yuan") on the territory of the settlement of Eski Ahsi (Ahsiket).
In Bukhara Sughd, research continues on one of the largest urban centers of the Paikend oasis. Paikend is also well known from written sources as a separate principality of Bi, a "City of Merchants " located on the route of the Great Silk Road and traded with China in the East and owned sea trading posts on the Black Sea. Archaeological research revealed the citadel with the Zoroastrian temple of fire, the cathedral mosque and minaret, the ruler's palace, the treasury, the military arsenal and the barracks located along the walls. In Shahristan I-II, a monumental fortification, residential quarters, street arteries with shops of metalworkers, ceramists, bakers, reception rooms of tabibs, as well as a unique treasure of Sogdian copper coins exceeding 4,500 copies were revealed.
The second most important broad area of work is the study of the famous oasis wall of Bukhara, Kampyrduval. Studies have shown that the wall covered 15 rustaks of Bukhara, stretching for more than 300 km. At a visible distance of 8-10 km, they were fortified with towers, fortresses, gates and customs offices located nearby, which controlled the passage of caravans. Its initial construction dates back to the fifth century, and was associated not only with the protection of the oasis from the nomadic wall, but also in turbulent times, the separation of these groups of the population from the joint struggle with the conquerors.
Based on the analysis of numismatic data, the previously existing position about the presence of local economic regions with their own specific monetary units in Central Asia in the IX - X centuries are confirmed.
Chemical and technological study of ancient handicrafts and preservation of the cultural heritage of Uzbekistan
In the field of the study of ancient metallurgy and metalworking in Northern Bactria, on the basis of chemical, spectral and other types of analyses, typological and chemical-metallurgical changes, different orientations of connections and changes in the nature of raw materials sources are determined.
In the field of conservation and restoration work to preserve many unique pieces of monumental painting of the XII century Afrasiab, clay and stucco sculpture of the Buddhist center Karatepe, metal products and numismatic material from Zartepa, Koktepe, Paikend, Khorezm.
Original conservation work has begun on the Sarmishsay rock art monument, new petroglyphs have been identified, destruction has been suspended and the natural appearance of the rock art planes has been restored.
5 author's certificates were obtained for the inventions of the institute's employees on new methods of fixing ancient porous materials, which were introduced in the 70s-80s of the XX century. In conservation of monuments raw architecture at the ancient city of Afrasiab, Kanka, Shashtepe, Sapallitepe, Aktepe Yunusabad, Nisa, etc. (Authors: A. A. Abdurazzakov, Sh. I. Ilkhamov, M. A. Reutova, A. Kambarov).
First identified handicraft centers metals of copper and bronze, which functioned in different historical periods on the territory of Sogdiana, the dynamics of technology for the use of the formulation of alloys, the chemical composition of the metal of a new series of articles, the sources of raw materials, which were based on the centers of metallurgy and Metalworking of Sogd.
In 2012, work was carried out to study the metallurgy of the Tazabagyab and Amirabad cultures of the Southern Aral Sea region of the Bronze Age and the mining base of the Kyzylkum Mountains. Studied issues such as chemical and metallurgical characteristics of products made attempts to bind metal to the ore sources of raw materials, conducted mapping of distribution of samples of the chemical groups and typological analysis of metal gear, defined the relationship of the investigated metal to metal synchronous monuments and cultures of the neighboring areas, providing a historical overview of the development of metallurgy in the bronze age on the territory of Khorezm.
Based on the analysis of the available data, there is reason to assert that there was an ancient mining industry on the territory of the Kyzylkum Mountains.
In the field of chemical and technological research of archaeological materials, the study of organic binding mineral paints of Afrasiab paintings of the Early Middle Ages was carried out. By studying the chromatograms, it was revealed that the gum of fruit trees was used as an adhesive. Extensive work was carried out in the field of conservation and practical restoration of various ancient materials found on the monuments of the republic in the course of archaeological excavations. Conservation works were carried out at the Afrasiab settlement to remove the wall paintings of the pre-Arab period, which contain new information material on the fine art of Sogd of the early Middle Ages. The restoration of the unique murals of Afrasiab of the Karakhanid period continued, as a result of which it became possible to combine the scattered fragments into plot scenes. During the restoration work, four major story compositions were prepared for the exhibition and 47 fragments related to various composition scenes were restored. Six prepared fragments were transferred to the museum of the foundation of the city of Samarkand on Afrasiab. Restoration works were carried out on clay-ganch sculptures made of Karatepe, carved clay and ganch from Paykend, metal objects and ceramics from various archaeological sites of the republic. The conservation and documentation of the Sarmishsay rock carvings continued. A water mill dating back to the 19th century was partially restored.
New archaeological and anthropological materials have been obtained that reveal the ancient history of the peoples of Uzbekistan and Central Asia as a whole. The study of the Obirahmat grotto gave a clear sequence of culture-bearing horizons. The hominid remains found here are unique among those of this kind in the republic, shedding light on the evolution of ancient man from Neanderthal to Homo sapiens.
Qualitatively new materials on the ways of urbanization and the composition of the material culture of agricultural and nomadic tribes of Central Asia and, in particular, Uzbekistan were obtained. For the early periods of the Bronze Age, the main materials were obtained from the monuments of the south of Uzbekistan-Jarkutan and the Bustan group of monuments. Jarkutan is an example of the origin and development of proto-cities and the first state formations with all the attributes of early urban culture.
The processes of formation and development of urban culture in the southern regions of Uzbekistan, in the light of the development of agriculture, crafts, and culture, are studied. Archaeological excavations in the Buddhist center of Karatepe have shown that Termita-Termez was a major center of Central Asian Buddhism in the Kushan era. The objects of artistic culture found here indicate the identity of the Buddhist culture of Bactria.
The architecture of the cross-shaped structure of Shashtepe II in BC-may be a manifestation of urbanized culture on the territory of ancient Tashkent. The outlines of the medieval city center of Binkat-Tashkent of the IX-XI and the end of the XIII-XVI centuries have been restored.