History of the Center of Archaeology
Uzbekistan is one of the most ancient regions of the East, which has preserved a wide range of cultural monuments from different eras. At the same time, archeology is one of the youngest sciences in the Republic, although its origins from the last century were such prominent historians and orientalists as V.V. Bartold, N.I. Veselovsky, V.L. Vyatkin and others.
The formation of science begins at the beginning of the 20th century, when the expeditions of Sredazkomstaris, Uzkomstaris, Bukhkomstaris, the Institute of History and Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, museums, universities and the Institute of Art History of Uzbekistan work periodically.
On August 19, 1970, by decree No. 426 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Uzbekistan, on the basis of the Institute of History and Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, the Institute of Archeology was opened - the leading scientific institution of this type in the Republic. Since September 30, 1970 the Institute has been functioning as a separate subdivision of the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences with a headquarters in Samarkand. In 1988 the Institute was named after its organizer, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan Y. Gulamov.
Since the time of organization, the main directions of research of the Institute were: a) research of ancient monuments to restore the history of material and spiritual culture; b) periodization of cultural monuments of the most ancient and ancient periods; c) study of the history of irrigation in the region; d) development of a scientific methodology for the restoration and conservation of archaeological sites. Among the applied tasks of the Institute were the operational work of archaeologists in the zones of national economic construction, the compilation of the Code of monuments of history and culture of Uzbekistan.
Through the efforts of the Institute's researchers, dozens of monuments of the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic), cave sites of Paltau, Obi-Rakhmat, open-type sites - Kulbulak, Kuturbulak, Khojamazgil, workshops of the flint industry in Uchtut, Kulbulak, Kapchigae, Vaushe; the Mesolithic sites of Kushilish, Machai cave, Obishir grotto; hundreds of Neolithic sites in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and Zarafshan, enriching the stages of the ancient past of the peoples of Uzbekistan with their collections and revealing the originality of the Stone Age of Central Asia and their role as a bridge between the cultures of Southeast Asia and Europe.
Research in the field of the Bronze Age was fundamentally new. The study of the previously identified cattle-breeding and agricultural cultures of the northern and central regions continued - the Tazabag-yab, Suvyargan, Zamanbaba, peculiar in appearance, but close to them in the economic and economic structure of the Chust culture in Fergana.
For the first time in the south of Uzbekistan, monuments of the ancient agricultural Sapalli culture, new for science, were discovered, much more progressive, with a clear planning of housing construction, developed fortification, established traditions of construction and planning techniques, specialized crafts - pottery, metallurgy, bone and stone processing, wood, weaving and jewelry.
The results of studies of the largest monument of the Bronze Age, Zharkutan, showed that we have before us the earliest example of the capital center of the ancient Bactrian civilization with all the characteristic elements of early urban culture - a citadel with a palace, a large social and cult complex - a temple, social differentiation of buildings.
These studies not only deepened the existence of the ancient agricultural culture of Uzbekistan for a millennium, but also revealed the ways of the origin of urban life, made it possible to more fully illuminate the economy, material and spiritual culture of the settlement of the Bronze Age.
Special studies were devoted to the study of the history of the most ancient cities of the republic - Samarkand, Bukhara, Tashkent, Termez and Quva. Systematic excavations of the Afrasiab settlement made it possible to trace for more than 2750 years the main periods of formation, prosperity, dynamics of development of the largest city in Central Asia, its fortification, public, cult and residential complexes, the material culture of the center, which stood on important trade and economic highways.
The time of origin, the growth of economic development and cultural traditions of such large urban centers as Bukhara, Termez, Shakhrisabz are established, the ancient culture of Western Sogd and Tokharistan, cult complexes and monuments of Buddhist art are revealed.
In Southern Sogd - the largest urban center of Nakhsheb - the Yerkurgan settlement with a powerful fortification, a large public and cult core, demonstrates an archaic and antique center at the junction of the cultures of Bactria and Sogd.
The Tashkent region appears today as one of the leading centers for the formation of the Turkic people, language and customs, which entered the core of the formation of the Uzbek people.
In Fergana, the most interesting materials were obtained by archaeologists in the study of ancient cities - Markhamat, Shurabashat, Pap and medieval capitals - Akhsiket, Quva, etc.
The first stage of the Institute's work allowed, from the beginning of the 80s, to launch research on a qualitatively new basis - to move on to the development of fundamental problems of the most ancient stages of history, the formation and development of the producing economy and the process of urbanization, the formation of cultural and irrigation regions, the originality of material and artistic culture ...
Research in these areas has led to fundamentally new discoveries and fundamental generalizations in the field of the most ancient and ancient history of Uzbekistan.
Firstly, at this time, a genuine periodization of the history of the republic from the most ancient stages was developed, which was facilitated by systematic comprehensive archaeological research, which was widely developed in all regions of the republic, which gave enormous material from the Stone Age to the late Middle Ages and revealed the true significance of the richest cultural heritage the peoples of Uzbekistan as the most important objective source on the most ancient stages of the history of the republic.
Secondly, it brought Uzbek archeology to the level of world science, revealed the true role of the peoples of Uzbekistan in the system of the ancient East, showed that the basin of the Mesopotamia of the largest Central Asian rivers Oks and Yaksart - Amu Darya and Syr Darya was the cradle of ancient cultures of farmers and pastoralists, the center of mighty urban life , home of scientific achievements, high distinctive culture, crafts and trade.
A new stage of research was the work in various economic and economic regions:
a) in mountainous areas, academician A.P. Okladnikov, having discovered dozens of monuments of the most ancient past, laid the foundations of Paleolithic studies of the region, and his students, headed by Academician of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan U. Islamov, made a significant contribution to the development of the periodization of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic of Uzbekistan, making the beginning of the formation of cattle breeding more than two thousand years old. , and the appearance of early man - almost a million years. Thus, they proved that the territory of Central Asia is indisputably included in the formation zone of early man;
b) in ancient agricultural oases, contact zones with pastoralists and in areas of the primary pastoral economy, where a team of archaeologists headed by Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan A.A. Askarov launched extensive research, the beginning of the formation of the culture of agriculture and ancient urbanization in the local area was almost a thousand years old. economic basis. Three zones of urbanization with their local characteristics have been identified, the genesis and stages of development of urban culture, characteristic of individual zones and Central Asia as a whole, are traced.
These works made it possible to prove that the southern oases of Uzbekistan, part of the early state formation of the Bactrian kingdom, were part of the core of the ancient eastern urbanization. Early cities, statehood and the first world religion, Zoroastrianism, were formed here.
Then this process moved to the central (Sogd) and northern (Chach) regions of Uzbekistan and ended with the integration of urban culture. For the study of this problem to a group of scientists (A. Askarov, Yu.F. Buryakov, R.Kh. Suleimanov, M.Kh. Isamiddinov, M.I. Filanovich, G.V. Shishkin, T.K. Khodzhayov, E.V. Rtveladze) was awarded the State Prize of the UzSSR named after Abu Raikhan Beruni.
A huge role in the formation of the oases of Central Asia, as well as the East as a whole, was played by the development of irrigated agriculture - the main basis for intensifying the economy. In this regard, research on the archaeological materials of Khorezm, initiated within the framework of the Academy of Sciences of the republic by Academician Ya.G. Gulamov. He identified the main stages of irrigated agriculture, which had a significant impact on the formation of the general stages of the history of society. Subsequently, these works were continued by his students, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan A.R. Mukhamedzhanov and Doctor of History A. Abdulkhamidov, who investigated the irrigation of Sogd and Fergana.
An equally important role for economic history is played by the development of raw materials, the richness and diversity of which, according to eastern sources, the countries of the Central Asian interfluve were famous for. The first steps in the development of this problem began with the joint efforts of geologists and archaeologists, among whom the pioneer of research was Academician M.V. Masson, who studied the history of the development of non-ferrous, precious and ferrous metals. Subsequent developments have stepped far back centuries. The works of doctors of sciences T.M. Mirsaatov and M.R. Kasimov covered mining in the flint industry from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic, and the research of Academician Yu.F. Buryakov became a direct continuation of the work of the pioneer researcher on non-ferrous and noble metals.
Research on the history of urban culture on the territory of the ancient cities of Central Asia, in particular, Uzbekistan, was carried out on the monuments of Samarkand, Bukhara, Tashkent, Surkhandari, Kashkadarya, Jizzak, Khorezm, Fergana Valley and Karakalpakstan. These studies were carried out on the territory of ancient settlements - Afrasiyab, Yerkurgan, Kanka, Eski Termez, Dalvarzintepa, Bukhara, Paykend, Akhsikent, Pap, Khiva, Mizdahkan, Kaliyatepa, Kurgantepa (Kh.Akhunbabaev, M. Isamiddinov, R. Sulaimonov, Yu. Buryakov, G. Bogomolov, Sh. Pidaev, Sh. Rakhmanov, G. Pugachenkova, E. Rtveladze, A. Muhammedzhanov, Zh. Mirzaakhmedov, Sh. Adilov, A. Anarbaev, I. Akhrarov, B. Matbabaev, M. Mambetullaev, M Turebekov, A. Berdimuradov, M. Pardaev, A. Gritsina) yielded fruitful results, identified new aspects and early stages of urban planning development. The intensification of research in Uzbekistan significantly influenced the development of one of the contiguous science - anthropology. As a result of joint archaeological and anthropological expeditions in Zarafshan, Khorezm, Surkhandarya, Syrdarya regions, Fergana Valley, the main anthropological types of the ancient population of Central Asia, in particular Uzbekistan, and the history of their formation were determined. T.K Khodzhayov's services are great in solving these problems.
To link the results of many years of fundamental archaeological research with the actual history of the Uzbek people, in full measure, begins only after our country gained its Independence.
With the beginning of Independence at the state level, new requirements, approaches and tasks were put on the agenda for the study of the ancient past of our people, its glorious history, cultural heritage left by previous generations and their preservation. Especially, the speech of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I.A. Karimov in 1998 in front of historians, archaeologists and journalists of the country, and the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers "On improving the activities of the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan" served as a further program for the study of historical disciplines. Based on the points about the tasks of ancient history, and in particular, archeology, the Institute of Archeology has developed a "Concept for the development of archaeological science in Uzbekistan."
During the years of Independence, the large-scale and fruitfulness of research has allowed Uzbek archeology to rise to the world level. This was facilitated by the signing of equal agreements with the leading scientific centers of the world. To date, international scientific research is being carried out on the territory of Uzbekistan together with archaeological scientists from Australia, the USA, Germany, Italy, Spain, Poland, Russia, France, Japan and China.
Since 1959, the Institute of Archeology has been publishing the periodical “History of the Material Culture of Uzbekistan”, since 2002 the yearbook “Archaeological Research in Uzbekistan”, which sets out the scientific results and conclusions of archaeological research carried out on the territory of the Republic. Since 2010, the scientific journal “Archeology of Uzbekistan ".
At present, Uzbek archeology serves science, proceeding from the foundations of the national interests of the ideas and prospects of our Independent Motherland. The merit of Uzbek archeology is also great in holding significant jubilee ceremonies, such as Ahmad al-Fergani, Imam Matrudiy, Imam al-Bukhariy, Burkhaniddin Marginoniy, Amir Temur, Mirzo Ulugbek and studying their cultural heritage, as well as determining the age of ancient cities such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Karshi, Shakhrisabz, Khiva, Termez, Tashkent, Margilan.
The holding of these anniversary ceremonies under the auspices of UNESCO at the United Nations means the versatility and fruitfulness of archaeological research over the past 26 years on the territory of our country. Once again, we consider it our duty to note that the foundation of our success has been laid in the process of comprehensive and in-depth research of the ancient past of our homeland under the close attention of the state and new initiatives of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
By Decree No. 426 of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Uzbek SSR dated August 19, 1970, the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan was first established in Samarkand. Further, in accordance with the decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. PP-2789 of February 17, 2017 "On measures to further improve the activities of the Academy of Sciences, organization, management and financing of research activities", it was renamed into the Institute of Archaeological Research of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. By decree No. 792 of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated September 21, 2019, on the basis of the Institute of Archaeological Research of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the National Center of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan was established.