The concept of development of the science of archeology


Uzbekistan is one of the brightest cultural centers and an integral part of world civilization. The Uzbeks are the oldest autochthonous population of the Republic and the heirs of that civilization.

The formation of the sovereign states of Central Asia prompted an active interest of the peoples of the Republic in the historical roots, the origins of the formation of statehood, economy and culture, relations with other peoples, contribution to the cultural treasury of world civilization.

The creation of an objective historical picture of the genesis of the people is today a paramount task that contributes to the revival, strengthening of national unity and the sovereign state of the Republic of Uzbekistan. History reflects the fate of the people and its knowledge forms the historical consciousness in the minds of the people, each person, ensures national identity, patriotism and civic consciousness, without which a great state cannot be built. However, the history of the Uzbek people from ancient times to the present day has been studied far unevenly and does not give a complete picture of historical reality.

In the system of sciences that form consciousness, an important role belongs to archeology, which has revolutionized historical science. At the beginning of our century, the famous English archaeologist G. Child wrote, “... it (archeology) expanded the spatial horizon of history almost to the same extent as the telescope expanded the field of view of astronomy. , just as the microscope discovered for biology that the life of the smallest cells is hidden behind the external appearance of large organisms. Finally, it made the same changes in the content of historical science that radioactivity introduced into chemistry. "

Only thanks to archeology the age of mankind has been lengthened by 2-2.5 million years, the most ancient civilizations of Egypt, the Mesopotamia of the Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, China, Maya, ancient Greece and Rome have been discovered.

In Uzbekistan, during almost a century of archaeological research, not only bright and original centers of the civilization of Bactria, Khorezm, Sogd, not inferior in age to many centers of ancient culture, were discovered, but it was also revealed that the development of this territory began at least 1 million years ago.

The land of Uzbekistan is a blessed archive that has preserved in its depths monuments of cultural heritage of various eras. On its territory, about 8 thousand archaeological monuments have been preserved, which are an invaluable asset of the common human civilization. Each castle, fortress, parking lot, rock painting left by ancestors is a document of our history, which is waiting to be deciphered.

In this regard, the primary task is the reliable protection of the preserved archaeological monuments, for which it is necessary to significantly change and supplement the current Law on the Protection and Use of Historical and Cultural Monuments, adopted back in 1977, which would take into account the realities of today.

Uzbekistan is an endless open-air museum, the bright exhibits of which, together with the magnificent historical ensembles of Samarkand and Bukhara, Khiva and Shakhrisabz, Termez and Kokand, rest in the vastness of ancient Khorezm and Karakalpakstan, Surkhandarya, Zarafshan and Fergana valleys, where the The Great Silk Road connecting the West with the East is a transcontinental trade route unparalleled in world practice and the path of dialogue between peoples, a repeater of great ideas and technical innovations.

All this is reflected in the material culture and ethnic appearance of the peoples of Uzbekistan.

Unfortunately, in the era of the Soviet Empire, Uzbek archeology, like many other humanitarian disciplines of the national republics, found itself in the tight grip of a totalitarian state ideology, saturated with the Marxist concept and the idea of ​​the historical development of society, a formational approach, an antagonistic contradiction of classes as a driving force. the forces of history, etc.

In the independent Republic, historical sciences, incl. archeology, for the first time got the opportunity to create an objective picture of the development of society. Today, such categories as "science", "state", "history", "civilization", "heritage" sound in a new way, they have acquired a new meaning and turned into a single, interconnected concept. The long historical process reflects the fate of the people and the task of historians and archaeologists - to recreate the history of the nation based on factual materials, to eradicate injustice and excesses committed within the framework of the totalitarian regime of Soviet power.

The history of the Uzbek people, starting from the most ancient period, from the Paleolithic era, and up to the present day, has always proceeded in this territory, in close mutual contact with the Middle East from the south and the Eurasian steppe region from the north, and is a part of world history.

In order to avoid a subjective approach when creating the history of science, Uzbek archaeologists actively cooperate with the largest archaeological centers in the USA, Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, etc., which provides them with international recognition and authority in solving problematic issues of the history of the peoples of Uzbekistan. For example, the problems of the history of addition in the III-I millennium BC. early Uzbek statehood and its continuous development, the study of the early history of the ethnos, its role in the formation of a great civilization, the history of the GSP and world religions, etc.

Based on the main ideas of the formation of historical consciousness and the upbringing of a free citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as a conceptual basis for development

In Russian archeology, fundamental and applied directions are put forward, grouped into the following blocks:

Development of theoretical and methodological foundations of archeology: materialistic approach, evolutionary and continuous development of society, rejection of the rigid formational division of history and the transition to a civilizational approach inextricably linked with the history of the country and nation, problems of chronology, periodization, etc.

Improvement and unification, in accordance with the practice of world archeology, research methods - statistical, systemic, morphological, functional and taxonomic concepts - "object and subject of archeology", "culture", "cultural layer", "monument", " parking lot, settlement, civilization, early city, early state, etc.

B. Study of archaeological cultures of the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, Antiquity and the Middle Ages; study of the problems of the development of Central Asia by primitive man; study of the Acheulean, Mousterian, Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic and

Neolithic monuments, rock paintings, and problems of paleoecology, the Neolithic revolution, the formation of a productive economy and irrigation agriculture; study of the problems of the emergence of civilization, miniature oasis states, early cities and statehood; "Big Khoresm", Bactria, Sogd, Hellenism, the rise of urbanization, architecture and urban planning, the study of the problem of the formation of the IDP routes, trade, monetary relations, numismatics, sedentary farmers and nomadic pastoralists, ideology, worldview of ancient societies, the origin and formation of world religions, crafts, metallurgy and mining, etc. "Study of the problems of the origin and chronology of large historical cities: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shakhrisabz, Karshi, Termez, Margilan, Andijan, Tashkent and their contribution in the development of world civilization.

Study of the problems of genesis, ethnos, human origin, society, the formation of tribes and peoples, the relationship of the settled agricultural cultures of the South with the steppe culture of the nomads of the North, Indo-Europeans and the Altai-Turanian synthesis in the origin of the Uzbeks.

D. Revealing, accounting - certification and mapping, restoration, conservation and protection of monuments of archeology, toponymy, paleoecology, paleoeconomics, paleozoology, paleobotany, ancient irrigation, history of agricultural cultures, creation of a set of monuments and a generalizing archaeological canvas of Uzbekistan.

All these problems are currently reflected in 4 fundamental research topics developed by the staff of the Institute:

Environment and origins of the ancient stone age of Uzbekistan.

Material culture, ideology and statehood on the territory of ancient and early medieval Uzbekistan (based on archaeological materials).

Medieval statehood and civilization of Uzbekistan according to archaeological sources.

The study of ancient handicraft industries according to the data of physical, chemical and archaeological research and the development of methods for the chemical conservation of archaeological objects.

Over the past quarter of a century, domestic archeology has collected a huge amount of material, which allows to illuminate in a new way the whole gamut of diverse phenomena in the history of the Uzbek people.

Based on the Government task set before the historians of the Сabinet of Ministers of Republic of Uzbekistan on July 27, 1998 and the concept of an independent, free, independent statehood, the priority and topical areas of Uzbek archeology are:



Uzbek civilization and statehood has gone through several stages in its development:

The first stage is characterized by the emergence of sedentary agricultural cultures, proto-cities, early oases, states typologically similar to the nomes of Egypt and the city-states of Mesopotamia and Maya, which developed in the Amu Darya river basin, in the small oases of Akchadarya, Sherabaddarya, Kashkadarya and Zarafshan in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in the II-I millennium BC

The second stage is characterized by the further development of statehood and the formation of large stable political associations "Big Khorezm", "Bactrian kingdom" and Sugudi Gava, such as the ancient Eastern Median state in the US-UP centuries. BC.

Historical and archaeological sources confirm this.

On the territory of modern Uzbekistan, the following centers of this cultural community, identified and studied by archaeologists, belong to this period: Fergana (Chust culture), Sogdian (Koktepa, Sangirtepa, Uzun-kyr, etc.), Bactrian (Zharkutan, Mollalitepa, Kuchuktepa, etc. .), Chach (Burguluk culture), Khorezm (Gyaurkala, Kuyusay). The centers of this early urban culture can be compared with the society represented in the Avesta.

The third stage of Uzbek statehood is characterized by a complete loss of political and economic independence, its territory becomes one of the administrative districts of world empires: first, in the 6th century. BC. Achaemenid, later in the IV century. BC. Alexander the Great.

■ The fifth stage in the development of the statehood of Uzbekistan is characterized by the rule of the dynasty of Chionites, Kidarites, Hephthalites and Turkic Qaghanate in the III-VII centuries.

It was during this period, under the protection of the largest ancient states, that the Great Silk Road was formed as a system of transcontinental and local trade relations, transit and local trade relations were added, the role of the city in the life of the country changed and the city structure was transformed. The Union of the possessions of Khorezm and Sogd, Ustrushana, Chach, Fergana and Tokharistan was formed under the auspices of Sogd. New values ​​of the eastern civilization of farmers and pastoralists of Central Asia are being developed in the Hephthalite state and the Turkic Khaganate. A single culture is being formed. There is a syncretism of culture and the contribution of the peoples of Uzbekistan to the civilization of Central Asia. The movement of goods, science and culture along caravan routes contributes to the transition from the civilization of states to world civilization.

The sixth stage is characterized by the loss of independence and the struggle for it of the peoples of Uzbekistan, which was part of the 7th-8th centuries. into the Arab Caliphate.

The Turks play an important role in the anti-Arab struggle. Sources of the 9th century report the outstanding military qualities of the Turks; the Turks were the main military force in the Samanid state; the Turks actively participated in the administration and administration of the Samanid state.

The seventh stage is characterized by the formation of independent states of the Samanids, Karakhanids, Khorezmshahs in the 10th-13th centuries.

The Karakhanid Qaghanate, the state of the Khorezmshah-Anushteginids - a new stage in the history of the Uzbek statehood.

Cities, considered the main criterion of civilization at this time, developed at a rapid pace. The life of cities - capitals especially attracts attention; Bukhara, Samarkand and Urgench are becoming the most important centers of material and spiritual culture. There is a massive export of Shash, Samarkand, Bukhara silver coins to Eastern and Northern Europe, i.e. these coins are becoming an important item in the export of goods on the transcontinental trade route.

The culture of the Uzbek people of this era is demonstrated by the outstanding achievements of the ceramists of Samarkand, Shash, Fergana, the Temirchi masters of Fergana and Ustrushana, the torevts of Akhsikent, Chaganian and the masterpieces of the architects of Mawarrannahr.

The eighth stage is marked by the invasion of the Mongols, the complete loss of independence of Uzbekistan and its inclusion in the Chagataid state in the 13th-14th centuries.

At the beginning of the XIII century. Central Asia is conquered by the Mongols. The fierce resistance of the Turkic commanders of Khorezmshah Muhammad - Inalchik-khan (Otrar), Timur Malik (Khojent), Kunya-Urgench and Jalaliddin showed the intensity of the struggle for independence.

There is a complete destruction of urban centers and large villages, physical destruction and enslavement of most of the population and, as a result, a severe economic and cultural decline in the development of the peoples of the Central Asian region.

The ninth stage of Uzbek statehood is characterized by the creation of the centralized empire of Amir Temur and the Temurids - as the pinnacle of medieval civilization and statehood in Central Asia.

The struggle of Amir Temur for the liberation of Central Asia from Mongol rule led to the formation of a huge empire, and the syncretization of the culture of the peoples of Central Asia with the most advanced cultures of the Arab world, China and India, primarily in the field of architecture, arts and crafts.

In the era of the Temurid Renaissance, the Uzbek literary language flourished. An outstanding contribution to its development was made by Uzbek poets and writers - A. Nawai and Z. Babur and others.

Samarkand turns into the brilliant capital of the Temurids' world empire. An outstanding Uzbek scientist on the throne was Ulugbek, in whose era the flourishing of material and spiritual culture continues. The largest urban centers of Central Asia are Samarkand, Bukhara, Shakhrisabz, Tashkent, Termez, Khiva in the 15th century. are among the prominent and prosperous cities of the East.

In material culture, the formation of standard samples is observed, an example of which is ceramic products - dishes: its colors, shape and purpose correspond to the mentality of the Uzbek nation.

The entire sum of archaeological and historical information from ancient times to modern times shows that the Uzbek people paved their way in the creation of a universal civilization and statehood in close connection with the peoples of the Middle East. A number of achievements of civilization and statehood, developed by our people, entered the golden fund of world civilization.

The goal of domestic archaeological science is to create an objective historical density - the civilization and statehood of the Uzbek people from ancient times to the era of the Temurids, without separating it from world history and not opposing it; to show the contribution of the Uzbek people to the treasury of world civilization - a relay of advanced ideas and innovations from East to West and vice versa along the routes of the Great Silk Road: show the role of the Uzbek people in the formation of cultures and statehood of the peoples of Central Asia, etc.

The concept of the development of archeology in Uzbekistan is designed to serve for the prosperity of the Republic, its international recognition, the formation of spiritual culture, the historical thinking of the nation, the upbringing of a free and perfect person, a citizen and a patriot of their homeland.